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Caftan Ntaa قفطان النطع





𝗖𝗮𝗳𝘁𝗮𝗻 𝗡𝘁𝗮𝗮 :

قفطان النطع: قفطان الموبرا مغربي مطرز بخيط ذهبي (الصقلي)، خاص بمدينة فاس، التي عرفت منذ العصور الوسطى بعمل الخيوط الذهبية التي تسمى بالصقلي. وترتديه العروس في أمسية الحناء. كما ترتدي معه التاج الفاسي (تاج الذهب) و المضمة (حزام ذهبي) الفناير و مدايج الجوهر (سلسلة من اللؤلؤ). في القرن التاسع عشر، كان القفطان مطرزة فقط على الطرف. التطريز على الملابس المخملية هو رمز مدينة فاس، حيث يستخدم الحرفيون في كثير من الأحيان خيط الذهب عيار 22 قيراط (النطع هو نوع من تطريز خيط الذهب). و كانت الزخارف تبشر بالخير للعروسين: كان يعتقد أن الطيور تجلب الحظ السعيد، والزهور ترمز إلى الفرح والسعادة. وكانت فقط في متناولفقط الأثرياء، الذين كانو يرتديونه في مناسبات خاصة أخرى من غير حفل الزفاف.




Gold thread embroideries are famous in Morocco, and especially Fez, a city where Jewish craftsmen have been renowned since the Middle Ages for the work of gold thread (sqalli).

They are found in caftans, babouches, tarbouches, fabrics, everyday objects, etc...

Until the 1930s, the manufacture of gold wire was one of the oldest, most renowned and most important industries in the Mellah (or Jewish quarter of Fez, according to Vicar and Le Tourneau); it directly employed 700 people, nearly a tenth of the population of the Mellah. Part of it was sold to other cities such as Debdou, Meknes, Rabat and Salé, Tetouan, Marrakech. The name given to the golden thread, the sqalli, remains a mystery.


But going back in the history of the ties of the Jews of the Mediterranean, we note that in the first centuries of the Christian era, there was the trade of "silk" practiced by the Jewish population of several countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, particularly in continental Greece and Corfu.


Under Roger Il, in the 12th century, Sicily had achieved a high degree of prosperity, to the point of rivaling Venice. On returning from an expedition against the Byzantines, Roger II brought back Jewish silk specialists captured in Thebes, famous in the Middle Ages for its silk factories, and in other cities of Greece, to install them in his royal factory in Palermo. It is not known whether the Jews processed both gold and silk there, but it is possible to assume so; it seems that the name shekel, of very ancient origin, given to the present Israeli currency, has the same root as the word sqalli (Sicilian).

The history of Sicily is eventful. In the 15th century it belonged to the kingdom of Aragon. In 1492 Ferdinand II of Aragon promulgated the Edict of Expulsion which caused a large number of Jews to flee to Morocco. The sqali may have originated from a direct relationship between the Jews who had already been living in Morocco for centuries and their co-religionists in Sicily, or from a passage of this technique through Spain at a more or less remote time. Gold thread would have continued to be produced in this country by Jews without losing its name of "Sicilian".


Sources: DENAMUR, Isabelle (2003). Moroccan Textile Embroidery, Paris: Flammarion. GOICHON, Anne-Marie (1939), 'La broderie au fil d'or en Fes', Hesperis 26, pp. 49-85, and 241-281. STONE, Caroline (1985). The Embroideries of North Africa, London and New York: Longman. VIVIER, Marie-France (1991). Broderies Marocaines, Paris: Bibliotheque Nationale de France. VOGELSANG-EASTWOOD, Gillian and Caroline STONE (2016). 'Embroidery from Morocco,' in: Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood (ed.), Encyclopedia of Embroidery from the Arab World, Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 188-209, esp. pp. 197-200.


















Sources: DENAMUR, Isabelle (2003). Moroccan Textile Embroidery, Paris: Flammarion. GOICHON, Anne-Marie (1939), 'La broderie au fil d'or en Fes', Hesperis 26, pp. 49-85, and 241-281. STONE, Caroline (1985). The Embroideries of North Africa, London and New York: Longman. VIVIER, Marie-France (1991). Broderies Marocaines, Paris: Bibliotheque Nationale de France. VOGELSANG-EASTWOOD, Gillian and Caroline STONE (2016). 'Embroidery from Morocco,' in: Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood (ed.), Encyclopedia of Embroidery from the Arab World, Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 188-209, esp. pp. 197-200.



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